Of course, the most delicious, aromatic and healthiest are all fruits ripe and fresh, but unfortunately this time is relatively short. So how can berries and vegetables be stored for a longer period of time?
All foods should generally be kept in the dark, mainly from direct sunlight, as sunlight affects fats – they rancid. The same is true of foods that are high in fat. Sunlight also destroys the vitamins in food.
Berry drying is one of the oldest methods of storage. In the old days, fruits, berries, mushrooms and herbs were dried to preserve them over the winter. Since effective drying used to require quite a lot of knowledge, it was a good undertaking. You have to learn and know that. Dried vegetables can be stored for years, but drying destroys the vitamin C they contain and reduces the content of other vitamins. Up to 50% of nutrients can also be lost during drying. Also different in appearance and taste of the fresh product, dried fruits are generally shriveled, chewy and not suitable for decoration.
Dried products generally have a reduced volume, a harder texture and most of the volatile components have disappeared. Some heat-sensitive materials have degenerated and some substances have even been oxidized. Therefore, the properties of the dried product are significantly different compared to before drying.
Berries and fruits can be successfully frozen and then reheated. Freezing food is one of the most common storage methods that slows down food spoilage. In order to store in the freezer, the temperature must be at least -18 – 10C. The lower the temperature and the faster the freezing, the better the nutritional value of the food. Home refrigerators are frozen at -18 ° C, industrial refrigerators are -30 to -40 ° C. The berries and mushrooms are stored in the freezer until the next season. Do not re-freeze frozen and thawed foods. Bacterial growth begins as soon as the food has thawed.
The taste and structure of frozen food change due to the water (ice crystals) it contains. Therefore, the thawed frozen berries are stewed and are not suitable for decorating sweets.
However, it should be noted that if the nutrients have been in the freezer for a long time and the packaging is not airtight, the foods will have a specific “refrigerator taste”.
For example, solids can also be vacuum packed, which significantly extends the shelf life of food. When packaged in this way, the shelf life of food is extended 3-5 times. During vacuum packaging, almost all the air is sucked out of the food packaging. As a result, the bacteria in the food no longer have enough oxygen to function and the food spoils. At the same time, it must be remembered that the aging of foodstuffs will never stop completely and food cannot be preserved forever. Dry matter – flour, coffee, tea, nuts, biscuits, pasta and rice can be stored at room temperature, dry for up to 120 days, but when vacuum-packed, all these foods can be stored for 360 days.
Salting is a very old way of preserving food, it can mostly be used to preserve meat, fish, vegetables, and mushrooms.
The effect of salting is based on the fact that, at a certain concentration, common salt makes the foods to be salted dehydrated (water is extracted from the cells). The result is the so-called. a physiologically dry environment where most microbes either cannot develop or die. Saline also reduces the activity of enzymes that break down proteins.
Salting is the preservation of foodstuffs with sodium chloride (NaCl) or common salt. It is added to foods in solid or liquid form. However, it is recommended to use coarse salt with mineral supplements, which is more beneficial to health, because coarse salt also contains other chemical elements necessary for the body, such as potassium and magnesium.
The sodium and chlorine components of common salt are essential for human life, but excessive consumption of common salt is harmful. Salt is a factor that promotes hypertension. There is a proven link between excessive salt intake and high blood pressure. Excess salt also puts a strain on the kidneys, which must excrete salt from the body.
However, salted foods lose much of their nutritional value because brine releases a lot of nutrients.
The mushrooms are mainly boiled. During cooking, the foodstuffs to be cooked in cold water are allowed to boil once, after which the cooking water is poured off. Depending on the purpose of the digestion, the process may be repeated a few times.
The purpose of parboiling is to make poisonous or bitter-tasting mushrooms edible. Depending on the species of fungus, this is done with one or more waters. Organic mushrooms are cooked for a shorter time, while mushrooms with stronger flesh and bitter taste are cooked for a longer time. Each time the boiling water is drained, because the toxins released from the fungi accumulate during the boiling.
Jams, jams, kissels, jams, all of which are generally made by cooking or heat treatment, which retains only 40% of the nutrients, all vitamins are lost. Due to the heat, the food loses most of the nutrients, original taste, texture and smell.
Marinating is the seasoning and maturing (from a few hours to a few days) of meat, fish or vegetables and vegetables with various spices, oils, vinegars, citrus or sauces.
At the same time, pickling is also known as one of the ways to store food for a longer period of time. While quick marinating is mainly used for meat and fish, a longer marinade is usually used for fruit.
First, the jars are distilled with boiling water. The food to be marinated is then placed in a jar, poured over the marinade and the lid of the container is sealed.
Because canning is used in canning, many nutrients are lost in canned food. About 40% of the nutrients remain, and the taste of the canned food also changes due to preheating and added herbs.
Freeze-drying, also known as lyophilization, is the removal of ice by sublimation and the removal of bound water molecules by vacuum. Virtually all foods can be freeze-dried. During freeze-drying, food is frozen by reducing the pressure and adding heat so that the frozen water in the food can sublime. As the temperature of the operation is below 40 ° C, the freeze-dried food is called raw food.
One way is to use different chemicals that kill all the bacteria in the food and at the same time destroy the minerals, vitamins and nutritional value, and later poison the food consumer. It is the preservation of large-scale industrial foods with preservatives, which we will not dwell on here. Because it’s not healthy!
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